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Friday 01 March 2002

Evidence of active efflux in resistance to ciprofloxacin and to ethidium bromide by Mycoplasma hominis.

By: Raherison S, Gonzalez P, Renaudin H, Charron A, Bebear C, Bebear CM.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 Mar;46(3):672-9

The uptake of fluoroquinolones was characterized for the fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain PG21 of Mycoplasma hominis. Accumulation of fluoroquinolones appeared to occur by passive diffusion. Addition of arginine as the energizer significantly reduced the uptake of fluoroquinolones, suggesting the presence of an energy-dependent efflux process. Reserpine and orthovanadate, two multidrug pump inhibitors, increased significantly the ciprofloxacin (CIP) uptake. In contrast, such a strong effect was not observed for moxifloxacin and pefloxacin uptakes. Two ethidium bromide (EtBr)-resistant strains, selected in vitro, showed a resistance profile compatible with a multidrug-resistant phenotype, with increased MICs for the hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, CIP and norfloxacin, EtBr, and acriflavine. Taking the EtBr-resistant strain RB1La as a model, a significant decrease of the CIP and EtBr uptakes was observed compared to the reference strain PG21. In the presence of reserpine and orthovanadate, both inhibitors of ATP-dependent efflux pumps, the CIP uptake increased significantly, reaching approximately the same level as that of the susceptible strain. Similar results were obtained with EtBr uptake and efflux experiments. Our data suggest the presence of an active efflux system, possibly an ABC-type efflux pump, implicated in the resistance to CIP and unrelated compounds like EtBr in the human mycoplasma M. hominis.

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