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Tuesday 08 May 2007

Meta-analysis of prophylactic parenteral antibiotic use in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

By: Dambrauskas Z, Gulbinas A, Pundzius J, Barauskas G.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2007 ;43(4):291-300

BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is a potentially serious condition. It carries an overall mortality rate of 10-15%. Infectious complications account for approximately 80% of deaths from acute pancreatitis, and the question arises whether or not prophylactic antibiotics are useful in the prevention of these complications. Therefore, we performed an evidence-based analysis to assess the effect of available prophylactic antimicrobial treatment on the development of infected necrosis and sepsis, need for surgery, and mortality. METHODS: A comprehensive PubMed search was performed evaluating the value of prophylactic administration of parenteral antibiotics in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Only articles published in English language between January 1990 and May 2006 were included. The search strategy initially generated 692 articles related to antibiotics in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. This number was reduced to 97 publications related to clinical trials on the same topic. Finally, 10 randomized clinical trials concerning prophylactic parenteral antibiotics in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis were identified. We have performed a meta-analysis using the random-effects model to assess the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on development of infected pancreatic necrosis and sepsis, need for surgery, and overall mortality. RESULTS: Patients with necrotizing acute pancreatitis should receive effective antibiotic prophylaxis (i.e., carbapenems intravenously) to decrease the risk of infected necrosis and sepsis and need of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: While providing new insights into key aspects of antibiotic prophylaxis, this evidence-based analysis highlights the need for further clinical trials regarding the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis.

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